Can Animating (On Film) The Correct Hereafter Interpretations Inspire A Violent Radical To Tolerance?
The global CVE strategy has the mandate to dig-up or invent new ways or paths (even unconventional ones) to provide inner guidance through research and studies on key issues in the CVE discourse and implement those solutions that are backed with evidence. One such issue that has eluded CVE scholarship and generated polarised debate is the extent to which Pull Factors (esp. belief in Martyrdom) and Push Factors each affect terrorism. This is an important question as it informs CVE strategy and organisations on where to direct more effort and resources. This project seeks to test drive an overlooked, unconventional approach to counter-radicalisation.
With terror on the increase especially in the west, it follows and as several scholars have alluded that the extremists have edged governments and their CVE programs and that more needs to done including exploring out of the box solutions.
To-date no study has ventured into this area perhaps because of the absence of the key variables. i.e. the terror actor who usually dies on spot, and the fact that his soul is in another inaccessible spiritual world altogether. You can’t ask a dead suicide bomber whether a) he acted just to get paradise or because of socio-political grievances, or to what extent both influenced his act, among other questions b) whether he actually got the paradise he wanted on the ticket of martyrdom. So to follow this terror actor, to the spiritual world to answer the above and other questions, the next best thing would be the Quran, and Prophetic Hadith, which have clear descriptions about his fate.
Quran 3:7 “It is He Who has revealed the Book to you. Some of its verses are absolutely clear and lucid, and these are the core of the Book. Others are ambiguous. Those in whose hearts there is perversity, always go about the part which is ambiguous, seeking mischief and seeking to arrive at its meaning arbitrarily, although none knows their true meaning except Allah. On the contrary, those firmly rooted in knowledge say: ‘We believe in it; it is all from our Lord alone.’ No one derives true admonition from anything except the men of understanding. As the CVE global strategy and activities dwell on social-political issues, and ignore the doctrine of reward and punishment in Islam, Extremists are successfully recruiting vulnerable souls using the ambiguous parts of Islam.
But “There is lots of counter-ideology material online but creativity to counter-inspire hearts is missing” says an EU CVE report. And adds that “…states cannot be seen to be the key actor if they are to have legitimacy.” So both the extremist and tolerant material have a fair share online actually the tolerant material has more share thanks to CVE censorship, but somehow the vulnerable still find the extremist material more appealing. The question then is how to edge the extremist content off the road of guiding souls.
Consider two vendors marketing their product. Vendor A talks and writes about his product and how it works. Then vendor B talks and writes but also creates an interactive video of his product in use. All factors kept constant vendor B will be more favoured in the market.
Islamic text (Qurán, Hadith) have VERY rich, vivid descriptions of hereafter experiences i.e. events leading to, during and after judgement day. The only reason Allah would give such elaborate descriptions is for us to imagine or visualise what to expect as reward for our actions. Visually animating and interactively articulating these, sets records straight, creates viral buzzwords and impressions superior to the hitherto elusive terrorist narrative, appeals to those on the radicalisation path to rethink their course, softens individual souls to tolerance and away from evil, eases access and genuine comprehension of specific beliefs, and most importantly help “build the capabilities of communities and civil society organisations so that they can campaign against the large volume of extremist material, including online” Extremism Task Force.
The only way of knowing the full effect of Pull factors is by exploring how radicalised subjects respond to a visual/animated film of the correct hereafter interpretations as opposed to the twisted voices of extremist preaches.
Psychologists affirm that people avoid death at almost any cost. The will to live is strong.
What turns people toward suicidal violence — and whether they can be steered away from it — are questions that have bedevilled governments around the world for generations. “After all this funding and this flurry of publications, with each new terrorist incident we realize that we are no closer to answering our original question about what leads people to turn to political violence,” Marc Sageman, a psychologist and a longtime government consultant, wrote in the journal Terrorism and Political Violence. “The same worn-out questions are raised over and over again, and we still have no compelling answers.”
Without the hereafter belief in martyrdom, it is unlikely that a perceived Muslim will recklessly violently kill others.
The purpose of this pilot is to explore the possible success of an unconventional approach to CVE by harnessing the power of film in pouring ice-cold water on the wild-fire that radicalisation has now become tackling the extremist’s KEY trade-secret of twisted hereafter promises. It is also to produce Evidence Based on an ongoing strong debate among CVE scholars and practitioners about the weight of PULL factors (especially the belief in martyrdom ideology) against PUSH factors.
In the aftermath of 9/11, the Bush Administration went to Hollywood’s doorsteps to develop content and plot lines to counter the buzzing Islamic violent extremism. Again in February Last year U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry Secretary of State met the heads of the major Hollywood studios at Universal Studios to discuss how to counter ISIS’ strong narrative. The intention of these engagements was to generate IDEAS to counter the violent extreme narratives. I believe this is the grand idea they were all looking to implement.
Our world has become so media-centric including the average Muslim who can’t steer clear of misleading interpretations of Islamic text let alone find time off media. Numerous psychology studies have found significant evidence that Films can be a great mechanism for individual reflection and change of minds but also conversation, catalysing discussion on highly charged topics in society, and providing a way to tackle issues without doing it explicitly.
A common feature in profiles of vulnerable individuals is that they spend considerable amounts of time on media like movies and other TV programs offline as well as online watching content that slowly shapes their radical views. Therefore a CVE solution that finds this individual in the environment that shapes his radical views would be handy in breaking his radicalisation trend.
It is now common knowledge that at the heart of the extremists’ especially ISIS’ Ideology is ‘the end times’ storyline. A leitmotif consistent in interviews and other communications from extremists is “It is the fastest way to paradise.” “All of them describe themselves as responding to a spiritual calling and many report a kind of spiritual high or addiction related to its fulfilment.” Jessica Stern, Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill.
Scholars have alluded that ISIS and other Extremists are fighting a cosmic war (good and evil), and they have elaborated to prospective recruits their notions or interpretations of good and evil whose rewards on judgement day are paradise and hell respectively.
This project will visually elaborate the true interpretations of good and evil in relation to the rewards of paradise and hell according tolerance and patience as good enviable virtues rewarded by paradise and violence and extremism as evil and rewarded by the scathing hell.
Dan Kimmage of the US State Department Global Engagement Centre also notes that stories of victims of terror attacks aren’t highlighted in media rather it is those of the terrorists that are popularised on news media and replayed in Hollywood films and series. Apart from the islamophobia this brews in most populations, it also heralds the terrorists as victorious heroes worth emulating, in other populations.
”What’s needed, however, is not a new catchphrase, but a global rethink about how the other side of the story — the side of the often Muslim victims — gets told. Here’s where the principles of judo, which unlike boxing puts brains over brawn, can help. A strong counternarrative could turn al Qaeda’s center of gravity against itself, sucking the oxygen out of the terrorists’ story and creating conditions for the only viable long-term solution: the Muslim world’s rejection of al Qaeda and the subsequent draining of its pool of potential recruits. A judo strategy would flip the al Qaeda narrative of victimization on its head, portraying the real victims of terrorism as the true martyrs.” Dan Kimmage
This project will highlight and popularise the victims of terror attacks as the true martyrs and are the victorious in the eyes of Allah, and the perpetrators as awkward losers or villains on judgement day.
“(isis), propagates a distinctive variety of Islam whose beliefs about the path to the Day of Judgment matter to its strategy, and can help the West know its enemy and predict its behaviour.” GRAEME WOOD
The inevitable constant however is in a world of over 5 billion believers, individuals will not stop looking for guidance to be triumphant and not losers on the judgment day.
If Water is life, Hollywood is westernism. The engine that has successfully immersed the world in western values. However Hollywood productions have two by-products that are fuelling ISIS and related extremists. Westernisation and Islamophobia. ISIS’ ideology fight is hinged on rolling back Westernisation.
If Hollywood had the power to westernise the world, then only Hollywood has the power to promote an Islam that is tolerant of western values. Therefore a Hollywood production of a synchronised series of films/movies/animations against the core or heart of ISIS’ extremist recruiting leitmotif will successfully displace the extremists’ ideology.
There have been several projects and interventions against the extremists’ ideology but none has touched the core or hit the bull’s eye of the extremists’ ideology creatively and effectively.
However albeit unintentionally, in broadcasting over 940 anti-Islam films and series out of 1,000 over the last decade, Hollywood has also demonised Islam promoting Islamophobia which in turn appeals to some new recruits who buy the extremists’ ideology. A Hollywood production therefore promoting a tolerant strand of Islam would come in handy in neutralising Islamophobia in turn relaxing the extremists’ ideology.
ISIS’s ideology is after all a systemic fight to roll back a world westernised largely because of Hollywood. So it would be logical to use the Hollywood pawn to dispel ISIS’s ideology by amplifying the already existent counter currents to out-buzz the extremists’.
Basically ISIS’ is telling its twisted hereafter storyline in words and this project seeks to tell the true storyline creatively in animation but also with a blend of usual entertainment for that viral effect. For example where ISIS verbally or textually tells prospective recruits that the easiest way to martyrdom and paradise is to suicide bomb ‘enemies’, we show one who took the suicide bomb route on judgement day having to account for his cruel action.
Which would be as in a narration of the Prophet (PBuH), as he is walking to paradise, the victims of his cruel bombing act, claiming against him. Then all his good deeds i.e. 5 daily prayers for say over 40 years, his fasting, his alms to the poor, etc. are given to the claiming victims. And if his good deeds don’t suffice the claims, the other claiming victims’ bad deeds or sins like adultery, theft, sorcery, etc are packed and placed on his scale and the claimants instead walk to paradise and the suicide bombers’ scale is tipped and marked for and cast into hellfire with fearful serpents and other bizarre creatures. This will show that the real victory or the real martyr in the eyes of Islamic teachings is the one killed by the suicide bomber and not the bomber himself.
There are also several events before the real judgement day that can be creatively plotted as described in Islamic text and not as twisted by ISIS. ISIS now claims to be the Islamic army that was prophesied to triumph at Dabiq in Syria Aleppo, the movies will also show that this claim is otherwise false.
Why the Hereafter?
To elaborate how important the doctrine of reward and punishment is in Islam, the prophet spent the first 10 years of his message on giving glad tidings of paradise as reward for tolerance and stern warnings of hellfire for transgressors.
What Actually Ignites a Person to carry out a Terrorist Act (Islamic)?
Several studies reflect social, economic, political grievances and religious beliefs as causes of extreme violence in the pretext of Islam including suicide bombing, the new common vehicle attacks among others. Analysing this violent individual’s decision making process, Social, Economic & Political grievances can be isolated as conditions that make him vulnerable to espouse extreme ideas. But to espouse and actually carryout the extremely violent acts as those highlighted above follows the belief in a distorted hereafter narrative. If it is a car, the social, economic, political issues are diesel and petrol while the belief in a distorted hereafter narrative is the car key that ignites the engine to start. Propagating the CORRECT hereafter storyline can reduce radicalisation and increase de-radicalisation.
There are millions of Muslims with similar or worse social, economic and political grievances but what makes them choose the non-violent reactions is the belief in the correct narrative of the hereafter.
Most Counter-Radicalisation programs have to the very largest extent focused on the conditions that favour violent extremism and ignored the ‘key’ that ignites extreme violence, and now ISIS has used the same ‘key’ to out-perform governments.
In the aftermath of 9/11, the Bush Administration went to Hollywood’s doorsteps to develop content and plot lines to counter the buzzing Islamic violent extremism. Again in February Last year U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry met the heads of the major Hollywood studios at Universal Studios to discuss how to counter ISIS’ strong narrative. The intention of these engagements was to generate IDEAS to counter the violent extreme narratives. Whether these engagements yielded the intended results is not evident. Below is the Hollywood idea we believe John Kerry and others have been and are still looking for.
We’ve been slowly working on an idea we believe touches or counteracts the CORE of ISIS’ and other violent extremists’ misconceptions. Whenever We relent, and later watch news of hundreds of innocents cruelly murdered and others painfully wounded, We remember how important and urgent this is.
The increasing violent attacks confirm dozens of analysts’ argument that the battle for young hearts and minds is lost to extremists. Socio-political reasons notwithstanding, the ultimate reason a perceived Muslim believer bomb-blows himself to kill others, is his belief in a twisted hereafter reward. But what if the correct hereafter reward is visually articulated to him??? As reknown Political scholar Robert O. Keohane says, “The impact of religion, has been largely ignored despite the fact that world-shaking political movements have so often been fueled by religious fervor.”
Well, the chief extremists can remain extreme for all we care but for them to ABLY continuously recruit young generations to their death cult more so online using twisted inspirations, is something we need to disrupt. This project seeks to strongly touch the hearts and minds of young Muslims, shifting the jihad/fight from external (politics) to internal (self/heart).
US Think Tank RAND in a 2008 report says, “Muslims themselves can and must propagate an understanding of the “right” Islam, and thereby discredit extremist ideology. Yet to accomplish this task requires the understanding and support of like-minded individuals, organizations and governments throughout the world. “And yes Muslims are not just seated in the back seat watching.
“There is lots of counter-ideology material online but creativity to counter-inspire hearts is missing” says an EU CVE report. And that “…states cannot be seen to be the key actor if they are to have legitimacy.” Below is the missing creativity.
Islamic text (Qurán, Hadith) and indeed other holy books have VERY rich, vivid descriptions of hereafter experiences i.e. events leading to, during and after judgement day, hellfire, paradise etc. Animating these in relation to characters of tolerance contrasting violence intimates the would be ‘bomber’ of their ‘real’ hereafter fate and abode, i.e. ruthless torment and suffering as opposed to the bliss promised by ISIS and others.
The doctrine of reward and punishment in the hereafter forms the axis of Islam and other Abrahamic religions, for long influencing hearts and minds. Extremists, know and use it equivocally, twisting the message to situate their actions into what is already believed as rewards, refer to ISIS Leader’s Ramadhan message of 2015.
Visually and interactively articulating these not only produces an attention-grabbing, thought-provoking TV series but also sets records straight, creates viral buzzwords and impressions superior to the hitherto elusive terrorist narrative, appeals to those on the radicalisation path to rethink their course, softens individual souls to tolerance and away from evil and violence, eases access and genuine comprehension of specific beliefs, and most importantly help “build the capabilities of communities and civil society organisations so that they can campaign against the large volume of extremist material, including online” Extremism Task Force.
The target audience would be the general population but with focus on the 1) the incoming convert whose ill-knowledge of the religion usually makes him gullible to recruiters. 2) the radicalised one or one already on the path of radicalisation. And the message,
Since the soul is by nature forgetful, a corresponding comprehensive, interactive and engaging web resource can be used as a spiritual follow-up mechanism constantly reminding the individual of how to be a good Muslim and how not to (I mean youth get radicalised while on a search of how to be a good Muslim), helping them to focus on subduing their ego and living within the acceptable realm of Islam, offer a platform for debate and aggressive propagation of tolerant Islam. This will be highly user-centred with visual tools clearly articulating relevant Islamic concepts that are not easily understood reconnecting back to the animated series.
Who is targeted?
This aims to talk to the radicalised individual, one on the path to radicalisation, the new convert, the aspiring convert, the person looking for guidance among others. An estimated 4,000 people joined ISIS in 2015, 666 of whom where Western Converts. It is perhaps these European and American individuals who are now giving ISIS its new edge now characterising its propaganda machine i.e. the much adored professionalism in production of Hollywood style videos, glossy magazines and the digital and social media prowess that are now key to its successful propaganda.
We (Elmot Ltd) have dragged Uganda Revenue Authority (URA) to court over infringement of our copyright for web software. URA engaged us through a third party, to improve URA’s then website which was decried for being not user-friendly by the public. After developing the new design including a mobile App and several other features, URA side-lined us and used their IT savvy internal team to unlawfully and unjustly copy and without authority use the software behind our backs avoiding payment which is technically piracy or Intellectual Property theft.
URA did not respond to several of our requests to compensate for our works conveniently claiming that they don’t know us and we don’t have a contract with them despite us holding several meetings with them working on the same project. This prompted us to activate license recovery measures on the current tax portal that runs the stolen software but URA still pirated (twice) their way against these measures and continued using the software without payment.
With several positive social media reviews about the new tax website on its launch in June 2014, there is no doubt our works gave URA mileage since our work is part of the platform that tax payers use to file and pay for taxes and we are claiming compensation and several damages for our efforts against this unjust enrichment on URA’s side.
URA is conveniently hiding behind a disclaimer they sent to the third party that they used just our ideas, yet indeed they copied and pasted our whole source-code. URA knows that the copyright law does not protect ideas and that is why their defense points insist that 1) they have no contract with Elmot Ltd and 2) they used just ideas, so we cannot claim anything at all, as if ideas are manna from heaven. However notwithstanding the presence or absence of a contract (explicit or implicit), URA had NO right whatsoever to copy and use our product without consent from either us nor their third party. When a thief/conman cunningly steals a Vehicle you were selling and he is tracked down by Police, he cannot then claim that since you didn’t have a contract with him he cannot pay for your car and that it now his. It is theft!!
But even though their IT guys implemented our works far below our envisaged standards, from both the ideas and the copied web product, URA has greatly benefited the following; (a) Improved Usability of the whole tax collection portal. This in turn (b) improved user engagement which also (c) improved the corporate reputation of URA also evidenced in comments on social media, all of which translate into voluntary tax compliance and ultimately increased tax collections. URA has collected over UGX 20 Trillion using Elmot’s works after trashing their previous design.
In fact to be more specific the increase in revenue collections (even minus the newly introduced taxes like rental tax) expressed as a percentage difference of the previous year’s collections for the first time since URA opened in 1991, hit double digits to 15.17%. 2007/08—[5.36], 2008/09—[5.01], 2009/10—[5.43], 2010/11—[9.09], 2011/12—[10.94], 2012/13—[9.41], 2013/14—[8.82], 2014/15—[16.83], 2015/16—[15.17]. [Calculations based on collection statistics from https://www.ura.go.ug
The direct factors for this increase might be several but all of them notwithstanding, it is a fact Elmot’s works had Indirect impact on this success.
Copyright infringement cases are on the increase as Ugandans get more aware of their Intellectual Property rights. Some big corporates like MTN, Airtel, Africell and others have previously been dragged to court over similar cases of copyright infringement. However many such complaints have gone unreported or just shoved under the table with corporates like KCCA, MTN, Airtel, URA, and several others being despot violators against several smaller companies puncturing economic development. This because victims are often unaware of their rights or fear attacking the wealthy big corporate not to mention the enormous litigation fees required.
It is because of such instances that Uganda currently ranks last among East African countries (Rwanda: 4, Kenya: 81, Uganda: 102) in the protection of Intellectual Property as an indicator of the Global Investment Competitiveness rankings 2015 by the World Economic Forum (WEF). Perhaps government and especially judiciary need to do more as this is in stark contrast with Uganda’s Vision2040 which says; “World leading companies such as Cisco Systems, Google, Dell, HP, Apple, Microsoft, Intel and Facebook shall be facilitated to establish innovation hubs’ creative spaces for researchers, talented developers and entrepreneurs to work with Uganda developers and academics.”
Legal minds have argued, that in an era of increasing global competitiveness, neither the courts nor legislatures can avoid knowing that whenever court decisions or laws constrain competitiveness or innovation, other countries can offer more hospitable environments. I mean look at the strategic new-comer Rwanda, ranked 4th and has attracted far more Foreign Direct Investment in ICT than Uganda.
Because developed economies recognise that copyright infringement is a significant problem that severely damages their economies the fines and penalties under the Copyright Act are among the most severe. The remedies are designed to provide substantial deterrence to the infringer and others, in order to limit or prevent future copyright infringement, as well as penalize the infringer for the past conduct, and fully compensate the aggrieved copyright owner.
“The economic philosophy behind copyrights is the conviction that encouragement of individual effort by personal gain is the best way to advance public welfare through the talents of authors in ‘Science and useful Arts.’ ”.
The fundamental policy underlying the Copyright Act is to promote the dissemination of the arts and sciences by providing an incentive for the publication of new works. This is accomplished by granting the original author certain exclusive rights in the work.
16th Century English philosopher widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the “Father of Liberalism John Locke argued in support of individual [intellectual] property rights as natural rights. Following the argument the fruits of one’s labour are one’s own because one worked for it. Furthermore, the laborer must also hold a natural property right in the resource itself because — as Locke believes — exclusive ownership was immediately necessary for production.
Caliph Abu Bakr’s Advice to Yazid bin Abu Sufyan :-
- I am appointing to you on this army to test you and try you if you perform well I will give you more if you don’t I will change you. So I advise you to have;
[Even when you are an entrepreneur, Allah has appointed you over others and is testing and trying you. Think about it, how many people would love to be entrepreneurs but they can’t be for such and such a reason.]
- Taqwah [Fear] of Allah because he can see your inside just as he can see you outside.
[Note that the Fear here does not mean the one you experience running for cover from a lion or a raging Anaconda but it is the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong even when no one is seeing you for Allah sees. This means you won’t engage in fraudulent/corrupt business activity, not because you fear the law but because you fear Allah.]
- Stay away from the Arrogance and Tribalism of Jahiliyah [Ignorance].
- When you join your soldiers [family/employees] be a good companion of them and if you deliver a speech to them then be brief otherwise they will forget the message.
- Improve the state [character/personality, faith in Allah] of yourself first, then the state of your soldiers [those around you] will improve. (As they will be looking up to you)
- Pray Swalah at the appointed time and complete the Sujud and Rukuh and have Khushuh (concentration) in Swalah. [Even with tense distractions of battle (family/work challenges)]
- When you receive Envoys from enemy be kind to them and generous but do not allow them extended stay otherwise they will learn of your weaknesses, have them stay among your strong forces and allow no one but yourself speak to them.
- When you seek counsel be straight forward and Truthful in order to receive best advice.
- Spend time at night chatting with your soldiers then you will receive news and veils will be lifted.
[i.e. spend quality time with those around you, family, work, so you know the reality of their conditions and perhaps intervene]
- Spread out your guards and pay them Un-Announced visit and whenever you see carelessness in guarding your army then punish them moderately.
[i.e. monitor family, employees and do impromptu visits/requests.]
- Don’t spend time with people who waste their time but spend it with people of truth and loyalty.
[Close associates in business & family should be the loyal and truthful]
- Be aware of Financial Abuse because it draws poverty closer and victory further.
- You will find men devoted to worship in Monastery leave them alone……………….
- Be patient when you meet your enemy ( isbruu wa swabiru ). [Out-compete your opponent in patience]
- Visit the Sick, the Injured, and Janazaa
- Remember Allah A lot
The widespread allegations of vote rigging in the recent elections and many others in developing countries is not just a threat to democracy and good governance, but also a total waste of billions of money used to organise the election. On the other hand opposing parties often take advantage of the failures of the Electoral Commissions by sometimes blowing claims out of proportion so to rally the masses behind them. None of the above should be tolerated as each has enormous consequences.
This has been the case in all the Ugandan elections i have witnessed without major improvements to reduce the claimed vote rigging. Whereas the opposition suggested changes to the electoral process that were ignored, am not sure if there were specific solutions suggested specifically on the voting itself as i think focus was on just the electoral process before the voting. But can there be a trusted tamper-proof, and transparent solution to the voting? Building on Stephen Musoke’s suggestion of “An alternative to Legal Independent Tallying”, it is interesting to first understand how rigging is actually done, since independent tallying is always meant to check vote rigging.
Keeping all factors constant, i.e. without disenfranchisement by delaying voting materials as was claimed in last week’s election, voter-buying, intimidation with Mambas, teargas on the streets and of course a few bullet deaths here and there, and now a funny new-one of switching off mobile money so that opposition agents can’t get the much needed transport to go and monitor activities at polling stations, Here are a few widely used rigging techniques.
- Altering of Results on the results declaration forms (some agents refuse to sign because they disagree with what is on the form)
- Buying off candidate agents to sign changed results on declaration forms. This can also be smartened up so that polling agents and candidate agents agree to tick the remaining ballots in favour of the “Buying” candidate. At my polling station it was polling and candidate agents waiting for voters, it could take around 30 to 60 minutes without a voter showing up which is a very ripe opportunity to deal under the table.
- The old-fashioned and infamous ballot stuffing.
- Electoral commission announcing different results, well this is hard enough to prove due to the opaque way EC has been operating but it has been claimed by several candidates. I would think if attached or uploaded somewhere, the scanned signed results Declaration forms would give EC a popular benefit of doubt but no they didn’t hence the widespread suspicions.
- Declaring final results without those from some polling stations allegedly those of opposition strongholds.
- Of course not ruling out possible genuine error during entry into the EC results system, or Ms Excel if it is what they used. This is very likely given the pressure data clerks have to endure. It becomes deliberate if one candidate is always the beneficiary of these “errors” and if they only increase his tally rather than decrease.
So what ready cost effective solution can be used against all the listed and other unknown avenues of rigging? I think it is important and more transparent to work with the UNIT as this removes any suspicious queries and creates a clear fall back incase of anything. The unit here being the Ballot Paper. There are scanners with the Automatic Document Feeder (ADF) feature where over 400 ballot papers can be inserted and scanned at once without having to manually change the ballot papers. If an algorithm is then developed to automatically, digitally sort and count the votes per candidate (yes this is very possible with advances in computer vision) and relay results to the accredited tally centres, including the digital scans, ooops sounds like you need loads and loads of disk space and bandwidth. But pretty much affordable given the importance of a transparent election anyway. So if this is possible, it pretty much takes care of rigging techniques 1, 4, 6 and 5 (because delays in counting are cut-out).
Sounds like buying candidate agents (Number 2) to betray their bosses is the way to go, and it can also accommodate ballot stuffing (Number 3) after all they are already paid. Stuffed ballots, even those sneakingly ticked in favour of the “buying candidate” can still be scanned and sent and duly counted by the algorithm proposed above. But we can also beat the big spenders and their billions by using a biometric counter. Am not so sure what the current biometric machines deployed by EC were meant for, but apart from identity, I doubt keeping a count of those who voted was one of the tasks. The same biometric machines if they didn’t already have it, can be programmed to keep a count of those who voted. This then prevents the “rigging agents”, from taking advantage of the many people who don’t show up on voting day for several reasons including the now trending disenfranchisement. The count recorded by the biometric machine can then be verified against that of the total from the algorithm suggested above. Ofcourse as a fall back or plan B incase any hitches occur somewhere, the usual counting can still take place.
There is also the issue of invalid votes, whose alarming percentage increased from the previous election. The developed algorithm needs to be as intelligent enough to consistently sort out invalid vote popularly known as KAFU (Luganda). EU observer reports said a vote counted as invalid at one station, passed as valid at another station. This however is not a solution to the increasing invalid votes. That takes me to think of a whole new user friendly voting machine that combines biometrics and vote counting above, without having to use ballot papers, which also makes me wonder, how do Developed countries vote???.
All in all given the many complex dynamics involved in organising an election, a fully rig-proof might be impossible but a lot can be done to make the experience more transparent, and generally acceptable to avert any suspicions leading violent to reactions. Am saying it is impossible given the very slim possibility that someone can still pay experienced hackers to get the result they want. The important thing is that all stakeholders have confidence in the system well, and the process.
You only truly possess that which you cannot lose in a shipwreck. — Imam Al-Ghazali
Success is not about money — it’s about controlling how you spend your time — Bill Gates
do the hard right leave the easy wrong
Humans are often poor probability estimators. They don’t learn well from experience. They tend to overestimate the probability of good events (lottery winning) and underestimate the probability of bad events (traffic accidents, running stop signs). Moreover, judgments are often biased by one’s position in a trial.
“Everyone should be able to defend arguments with data,” he writes in the memo. “Information transparency helps people […] determine who is telling the truth.”
success is making a difference and taking care of the people closest to you.
You are waiting for your turn for a decisive interview for your dream job. An itch or minor discomfort really really calls you to scratch your head, then you take the bait and scratch it, then your hair becomes messy. But had you patiently endured, the itch would slowly wane away and your hair remains intact.
Similarly our souls are constantly subjected to short-time stray desires which if we give into, our soul are then constantly tainted/blackened with impurity but if we patiently endure, our souls remain pure and presentable to Allah on Judgement day.
About the characters and meaning of a Muslim, The Prophet (PBuH) said a Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands others are at peace. Clearly there is a disconnect between Prophet’s message and that of violent extremists now spreading like a wildfire thanks to media.
A Cherokee grandfather told his grandchildren, “In life there is a terrible fight between two wolves. One is evil: he is … anger, hatred, envy, greed, arrogance, self-pity, resentment, and deceit. The other is good: he is joy, serenity, humility, confidence, generosity, truth, gentleness, and compassion.” A child asked, “Grandfather, which wolf will win?” The elder looked him in the eye. “The one you feed”. The wolves referred to here are the Nafs (evil soul) and Ruh (good soul) both resident in every person. This concept is also emphasised in Imam Al Ghazali’s “Revival of Religious Sciences.”
Thousands of media materials/content are focused on life on earth, feeding billions of souls to focus on material earthly life. Yet it is the shortest of the three abodes (world, grave, and hereafter) of a soul. Whereas earthly life is one we should pursue as encouraged in the Quran, we ought to equally remember the hereafter and the same media can be used to visually explore the hereafter.
On earth, the soul has three states; an-nafs al-ʾammārah bil suu’I (soul inclined to evil), an-nafs al-lawwāmah (self-accusing soul), and an-nafs al-muṭmaʾinnah (soul at peace). Most of the content in media, movies, TV, feeds souls to be more and stay in the first state (inclined to evil). But what do souls in the other two states feed on? On deen, reminders of the hereafter, among others.
Violent extremists have reinterpreted the notion of jihad in the light of constraining circumstances away from a focus on internal (soul) struggle to external struggle (‘migrate and fight’) and salvation through a (more individualised) deadly form of ‘jihad’.
Here’s “Extremist propaganda is too widely available, particularly online, and has a direct impact on radicalising individuals. The poisonous messages of extremists must not be allowed to drown out the voices of the moderate majority.” UK Extremism Task Force (ETF), 2013. “The reaction of individuals to this propagation in our fieldwork varies widely; from attempts to keep religious belief separate from politics, to personal piety, to adoption of more radical views.” Says a 2008 EU funded study.
But some dozens of terror analysts have sentiments like, “Meanwhile, it’s clear that ISIL has been using the internet to aggressively recruit to its death cult – using all the tools available, while governments have not been so fast and able to put together an effective counter-narrative that can permeate online.” aljazeera.com, Rachal Shabi, 2015.
Reports say as a key narrative for a revivalist trend, many Muslims are always searching to be good Muslims, it is important that they don’t find the terrorists’ narrative first or more appealing to hearts, hence the need for creative ways to delineate between the dominant understanding of jihad from its focus on the inner and outer dimensions of self/soul against ego, worldliness, tolerance, among other good characters taught by the peaceful prophet.
On average young people spend 10 hours on media daily, feeding hearts and minds with whatever they see. It’s on record most of the content they see is violence related, whether it is news or fiction movies, studies have shown watching violence influences especially young people to act violently let alone taking away focus on being the “good” Muslim.
So what is the likely chance that a radicalised individual’s heart and mind would independently drop or avoid violence and hatred ideals if, they saw a thought provoking animation video exploring the true hereafter as described in the Quran/Hadith? This project seeks to answer this and other related questions.
The EU funded study says “while there is no shortage of other currents and counter ideologies, a central problem remains of how they[the counter-narratives] are enabled, funded, disseminated, how they gain access to the broader mass Muslim ‘field’ and can be reinforced.” And that “…states cannot be seen to be the key actor if they are to have legitimacy.” Below is my suggestion.
A Hollywood Solution
As a practising Muslim I have over time learnt that when our hearts transgress, it’s sometimes not because we don’t know what we are losing (in Janna) or what torment is in store for us (in hell), but because we just fail to visualise the two clearly. That is why severally Allah has painted pictures and encouraged the Prophet (SAW) to paint pictures or examples for people to better understand what to expect in both heaven and hell as a result of their actions. Qur’anic concepts of judgement day, the Siraat, boiling hell, paradise among others can be artistically animated for people to better visualise what to expect as a result of their actions.
Being that pictures speak louder than words, the idea therefore is to create animated movie/film TV series using the advanced technology and production expertise at Hollywood, to help souls give well informed thought to their actions and priorities before acting in violence, hatred, evil, terror, etc.
Hundreds of TV series are themed on terror and extremism, whereas they are fictional, several scenes demonise the West in the eyes of a novice Muslim, in a way promoting the extremists’ narrative. It is time for a slight shift of focus to the hereafter to neutralise this phenomenon.
Whereas social, political, economic constraints legitimately fuel radicalism, the real ultimate zeal or trigger to take on evil actions like suicide bombing is encapsulated in the heartily belief that one is destined for martyrdom and will receive eternal bliss on the hereafter.
Overlooked by many now failing counter-radicalisation campaigns like UK’s Prevent Strategy, the doctrine of reward and punishment forms the axis of Islam and other Abrahamic religions, for long influencing hearts and minds. Extremists, know and use it equivocally, twisting the message to situate their actions into what is already believed as rewards, refer to ISIS Leader’s Ramadhan message of 2015. An estimated 5.4 Billion people believe in judgement day and its rewards and punishments.
A credible thought provoking dramatized series (and a corresponding interactive web resource) of experiences and events of hereafter Islamic narrations comparatively highlighting rewards and punishments as results of an individual’s tolerant and terror acts. The general objective would be to influence the individual Muslim to willingly drop violence then value and adopt tolerance as did the Prophet.
Our world has become so media-centric including the average Muslim who can’t steer clear of misleading interpretations of Islamic text let alone find time off media. Islamic text (Qurán, Hadith) and indeed the Bible have VERY rich descriptions of hereafter experiences and events on judgement day, hellfire, paradise etc.
Visually dramatising and interactively articulating these, sets records straight, creates viral buzzwords and impressions superior to the hitherto elusive terrorist narrative, appeals to those on the radicalisation path to rethink their course, softens individual souls to tolerance and away from evil, eases access and genuine comprehension of specific beliefs, and most importantly help “build the capabilities of communities and civil society organisations so that they can campaign against the large volume of extremist material, including online” Extremism Task Force.
Movies can be a great mechanism for individual reflection but also conversation, catalysing discussion on highly charged topics in society, and providing a way to tackle issues without doing it explicitly. Movies also influence ideology which is the root cause of conflict.
Since the soul is by nature forgetful, a corresponding interactive and engaging web resource will be used as a spiritual follow-up mechanism constantly reminding the individual of how to be a good Muslim and how not to, helping them to focus on subduing their ego and living within the acceptable realm of Islam, offer a platform for debate and aggressive propagation of tolerant Islam. This will be highly user-centred with visual tools clearly articulating relevant Islamic concepts that are not easily understood.
Just before campaigns begun I saw President Museveni on TV struggling to show Ugandans what government has done. He gathered a few photo of schools, hospitals and roads and markets among others and ended with complaining about his team not being able to have a comprehensive resource of government information, atleast the achievements for that matter. Recently government ordered all media houses to broadcast or promote government programs and services or face closer. Unfortunately for them, there was hardly any ready information resource about government programs and services, meaning they hard to invest money in promoting government /ruling party, meanwhile the ruling party was splashing billions of cash in bribing voters, appeasing its loyal cadres, among others.
The last few months have been tough for the ruling party as they campaign to seek re-election for is it the fifth or sixth term. It obviously is tougher than previous campaigns for a number of reasons but mostly because more hoodwinked citizens are finally removing the hoods off.
Governments are infamous at Public Relations (PR). We have seen people successfully talk against government on poor-performance not because they aren’t performing but because government is famed for poor PR. I mean severally government opposers have gone away with false claims like the road in such and such an area is not good yet it is good, there is no medicine in such and such an hospital yet there is, among others, just because they are pretty sure no one will come-up to oppose their claim as government hasn’t put the information out there. Of course am not saying government is performing but that even the little they have accomplished can be easily used against them thanks to their in-sensitiveness to publicity.
“Communication, communication, communication” is a popular idiom by relationship counselors. Government’s indifference to public interaction can be likened to a man who wins the heart and marries a beautiful wife after an expensive and competitive courting affair, then a few days after the wedding the man travels for business leaving the wife alone in the house. No communication, no gifts, phone calls “not available at the moment”, emails “Delivery failed permanently”, WhatsApp status “last seen 4 years and 7 months ago” no interaction at all she is basically fending for herself. Then from the blue he reappears asking to renew marriage vows. If the wife is kind enough to accept the new manifesto, with a great deal of lying ofcourse, it is unlikely she will accept the third term if the same disrespect is repeated.
With more likelihood of a loss or re-run than ever before, News has it that government has spent over 120 billion so far in this campaign, actual figures could be far more but going by the analogy above, government(s) are responsible such predicaments. They even don’t have to be good performers but good communicators. Rollo May says Constant, effective “Communication leads to community, that is, to understanding, intimacy and mutual valuing.” So what if both sides can mutually, positively, and richly interact throughout the term?
Former UN Secretary General Koffi Annan says that good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development. If governance matters, so does the need for more reliable and valid data and convenient public participation on key governance activities.
What if the government had committed just less than 5 Billion for citizen-state interaction to improve PR, am sure it would be spending far less in the campaigns since citizens who already know what they have done, doing, and planning to do. Governments therefore need to treat their citizens as mutual partners not just during election campaigns but throughout the entire term they are in power. Quality interaction through well planned and strategic constant communication about government programs and services can ensure this mutual trust on both sides. Thus investing in systems that promote this interaction can greatly improve government-citizens trust and ofcourse the ruling party won’t have to invest millions of dollars in campaigns since the citizens are in constant communication with government and already trust them.
Did you know government pays part of your Umeme bills, electrifying a village in Rakai district, tarmacking a road in Gulu and much more? 99.9 % of 34 million Ugandans will answer No, how am I to know? In a recent NTV Uganda interview, the spokesperson of the Directorate of Public Prosecution said the Directorate`s biggest challenge is dissemination of information to the public. Adding, “We have won 53% of cases…” news to questioners on social media.
Government; (ministries, departments and agencies) has continuously lagged behind on harnessing the value of ICT in rebranding itself as a performer. This is not to say government is performing but another wakeup call for government to open up to citizens to participate in developments by leveraging the ICT tool to promote transparency. I mean, what`s more than gaining citizens` trust to a government?
In the rather ambitious Vision 2040, government alluded to the absence of a national value system slowing national mobilization on key developments, highlighting corruption and unconducive work ethics as big threats to economic growth and transformation which are difficult to handle without a national value system. The question is, can you build a value system without citizens` trust?
On the campaign trail, then-Senator Obama promised to “restore the American people’s trust in their government by making government more open and transparent,” On Obama’s first day in office, he issued two memoranda on “open government,” referring to increased transparency using ICT innovations. The first, on the Freedom of Information Act, (FOIA) to encourage government agencies to be more responsive to FOIA requests by citizens, stating that FOIA encourages accountability through transparency and is the most prominent expression of a profound national commitment to ensuring an open Government.
Similar to America`s FOIA, in 2005 the government of Uganda (one of the few in Africa) with development partners pressure, passed the Access to Information Act (ATIA) with “sugar-coated” objectives like; “(d) to promote transparency and accountability in all organs of the State by providing the public with timely, accessible and accurate information; and (e) to empower the public to effectively scrutinise and participate in Government decisions that affect them”. But an April, 2013 World Bank study shows that like many other laws, six years later implementation and intended objectives are both negative. Remember the Oil agreements saga where government held onto the PSAs! But little does government know that if innovatively implemented, ATIA could turn out in its favour and fuel the Vision 2040. Do i need to remind government that we are in the information era and using information innovatively wields power?
Let`s visualise a simple scenario, would you steal Global Fund money knowing that a million people are watching it? including; HIV positive peasant mothers upcountry who received an SMS that their ARVs are ready, elite Ugandans who conveniently view, engage with leaders and do independent checks and balances on budget allocations and spending over the web or smart phones? My answer is, “NO, I wouldn`t”. Not to pre-empt what our budding IT youth can innovate with this information/data to improve citizen participation, and service delivery.
Edwards Demings a reknown statistician is quoted to have said, “In God we trust, all others must bring data.” Government has long had a culture of keeping citizens ignorant which has worked to its detriment. Government now needs to rebrand from one famed for corruption to a transparent, and participatory (ingredients of trust) one by proactively giving “RELEVANT” information to citizens. Today URA is struggling to beat collection targets, but without convenience and trust from taxpayers, voluntary compliance is a dream way beyond even 2040.